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Full text of "Annual report of the Commissioner of Animal Industry"

•'■ 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/annualreportofc1919mass 



Public Document 



No. 98 

3 



EIGHTH ANNUAL KEPOKT 



OF THE 



COMMISSIONER OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY 



For the Year ending November 30, 1919 




d- 



BOSTON 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS 

32 DERNE STREET 

1920 










Publication of this Document 

approved by the 
Supervisor of Administration. 



Ql\)t Commonroealtl) oi ifta50acl)xi£ettB 



Depaetmext of Axtmal Ixdustey, 
Bostox, Xov. 30, 1919. 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives. 

In accordance with the provisions of section 4, chapter 608, 
Acts of 1912, I have the honor, as Commissioner of Animal In- 
dustry, to present the following report of the Department's 
work for the year ending Nov. 30, 1919; 

The Department of Animal Industry is charged with the 
duty of inspection and examination of animals within the Com- 
monwealth; the quarantining and killing when necessary of 
animals affected with, or which have been exposed to, con- 
tagious disease; the burial or other disposal of their carcasses; 
the cleansing and disinfection of districts, buildings or places 
where contagion exists or has existed. It is also charged with 
the duty of tuberculin testing all neat cattle shipped from other 
States to Massachusetts, unless the same are intended for im- 
mediate slaughter or are accompanied by a record of test made 
by a veterinarian approved by the live-stock official of the State 
from which they are shipped and by officials of the United 
States Bureau of Animal Industry, and which record is accepted 
by the Commissioner on arrival of the animals. 

The maintenance of health of the live stock of the State bears 
an- important relation to the preservation of the public health, 
to proper fertilization of the soil, to successful dairying, to the 
conservation of all kinds of animal food used for human con- 
sumption, and to the business of propagating, feeding and mar- 
keting cattle, sheep and swine and also marketing their by- 
products, such as leather, wool, fats, fertilizers, and many other 
important articles of commerce. 

Health of live stock is so indispensable to all of these projects 
that the prevention and limitation of contagious diseases among 
them becomes an important public work which not only directly 
affects the economic success of live-stock owners but more or 
less directly influences the welfare and material prosperity of 



4 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

every individual. Our work auxiliary to that of the State De- 
partment of Health in preservation of the public health lies in 
the suppression of such animal diseases as are communicable 
to the human subject, namely, glanders, tuberculosis, rabies, 
anthrax, actinomycosis, etc. Any one of these diseases may be 
transmitted to the human subject if circumstances favorable to 
such transmission are present; and as the majority of them 
are rapidly fatal to the human being, their prevention, control 
or eradication from the animal kingdom forms a most impor- 
tant part of our duties. 

Fertility of the soil is so dependent upon the keeping of live 
stock that general crop production is found to be in direct ratio 
to the number of animals produced, raised and maintained upon 
the farms. Their numbers are in turn largely increased if the 
prevalence of contagious disease among them is effectively con- 
trolled or entirely eliminated. Healthy animals return to their 
owners a far better revenue on the investment of time, labor and 
capital expended in their upkeep than do those among which 
disease prevails in any form or in any degree of intensity or 
extent, and the difference in the revenue from the two classes 
is so great that there is no question as to the true economy of 
raising and maintaining only live stock which can be kept free 
from disease. 

The dependence of the public upon domestic animals for 
food material as represented not only by dairy products but 
by the meat value of their carcasses if found healthy at time of 
slaughter indicates another necessity for the limitation of con- 
tagion among them as far as possible. The carcasses of many 
thousands of animals are annually condemned by Federal au- 
thorities in .the abattoirs of the whole country on account of 
the presence of lesions of contagious disease to such an extent 
as to render them unfit for human consumption. The statistics 
for Massachusetts alone are not available, but they no doubt 
are of practically the same significance as are those of the coun- 
try as a whole. It is an economic necessity of the nation that 
this great waste be reduced. Progress in this direction is yearly 
increasing through the active co-operation of Federal, State and 
municipal authorities and the veterinary profession in the effort 
for elimination of animal diseases. It is affected and influenced 
proportionately as it is encouraged by attention of the public 



1920.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 5 

to prevailing conditions and the more general recognition of the 
necessity for this improvement. In this work toward reduction 
of the great waste of animal food products caused by the 
prevalence of contagious disease, and which work is necessarily 
of national scope, Massachusetts yields to no other State in its 
efforts in co-operation with every other agency operating to 
the same purpose. 

In accordance with the provisions of chapter 189, General 
Acts of 1918, this report will consist of a brief summary of the 
year's work of the Department, illustrated by charts showing the 
control work of recent years of some of the principal contagious 
diseases of animals. These charts will probably be of considera- 
ble interest to those who have been familiar with the workings 
of this Department during a period of years. They show the 
progress of the control work during different periods, and sum- 
marize the success of such policies as have been pursued for a 
length of time sufficient to conclusively prove the wisdom of 
their inauguration. 

Following is a gross summary of the work of the Department 
for the year ending Nov. 30, 1919: — 

Cattle. 

13,163 Massachusetts cattle were physically examined by Department 
agents. 
774 Massachusetts cattle were tuberculin tested by Department 
veterinarians. 
10,993 Interstate cattle were tuberculin tested by Department veteri- 
narians. 
1,202 Animals on 148 farms in 47 towns were given preventive treatment 
against blackleg. 
128 Animals on 8 farms in 5 towns»were given preventive treatment 

against anthrax. 
52 Animals on 8 farms in 7 towns were given preventive treatment 
against hemorrhagic septicemia. 
2,097 Visits to unsanitary premises were made by district veterinarians. 

Horses. 

303 Tests for glanders were made by Department veterinarians. 
4,125 Interstate horses were examined by Department veterinarians. 
7 Tests of whole stables were made by Department veterinarians. 

Dogs. 

391 Cases of possible rabies in dogs were investigated. 



6 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Swine. 
68,075 Head of swine were treated in prevention and cure of hog cholera. 
16,180 Head of swine were treated in prevention and cure of hemorrhagic 
septicemia. 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 

276 Cases of miscellaneous diseases were investigated by Department 
veterinarians. 

Bovine Tuberculosis. 

Although the records of the Department show a favorable 
condition as to the prevalence of this disease in the State, we 
nevertheless feel that its control is a serious problem and that 
every additional effort possible should be made which promises 
any greater success in this direction. 

Widely prevalent in all parts of the world, it is, however, in 
the densely populated areas of the country, where intensive 
dairying is carried on and where the conditions most favorable 
for its existence and spread among cattle and to the human 
subject are found, that its greatest prevalence is noted. 

Statistics do not show that Massachusetts cattle are more 
generally affected than are those of other States in which similar 
conditions of environment exist. On the other hand, it is prob- 
able that if a correct survey could be made the percentage of 
cases in our herds would be found to be smaller than in many 
other States where active control work has not been given atten- 
tion for as long a period as has been the case in Massachusetts. 

The general policy which has been pursued by the Depart- 
ment in this work for the past three years is still in operation. 
This policy briefly stated is as follows: Tuberculin testing of all 
cattle arriving in Massachusetts from other States not accom- 
panied by approved records of test, followed by slaughter of the 
reacting animals; annual examination by local inspectors of 
animals of all Massachusetts cattle and the premises on which 
they are kept, with a detailed report as to the health of the 
animals and the sanitary condition of the premises; quarantine 
of all animals suspected of being diseased, followed by an ex- 
amination by a Department inspector not only of the suspected 
animal but of all other members of the herd in which it is 
found, with the slaughter of such as are found diseased; dis- 



1920.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 7 

infection of the premises where diseased animals are found and 
a " follow-up" examination of the herd three months later; the 
same process of disinfection and re-examination of herd again 
carried out if additional cases are found; tuberculin testing of 
herds at request of the owners, under an agreement as to the 
disposal of the reacting animals. 

In our opinion the present Massachusetts plan of searching 
out and disposing of clinical cases of tuberculosis, thereby re- 
moving the most active spreaders of the disease, is one of the 
most effective methods by which progress in its actual control 
is accomplished. The diagnostic value of the tuberculin test, 
carefully applied by competent . men, is very generally recog- 
nized; it should be taken advantage of at every opportunity 
for the purpose of disclosing the non-clinical cases. Although 
not infallible even in the hands of most competent and careful 
veterinarians, satisfactory control of the prevalence of tuber- 
culosis among our neat cattle is not possible without its aid. 

Another factor now entering into the control of this disease 
is the movement inaugurated two years ago by the United 
States Department of Agriculture, and now in operation in 
forty-four States of the Union, known as the "accredited herd 
plan in eradication of tuberculosis." It provides for the ap- 
plication of the tuberculin test by the United States Bureau of 
Animal Industry in co-operation with live-stock officials of the 
several States. The movement at first limited the application 
of the test to herds of pure-bred animals, from which springs 
the foundation live stock of the country, but it has now been 
extended to include the herds of grade animals. 

To such herd owners as agree to fulfill certain requirements 
laid down by the Federal and State officials relating to the con- 
trol, keeping and replenishment of their herds, and whose cattle 
all pass two annual or three semiannual tuberculin tests, is 
accorded the privilege of having their herds listed in what is 
known as the "accredited tuberculosis-free herd list," published 
by the United States Department of Agriculture in a large edi- 
tion and widely distributed. 

The health of a herd and its freedom from tuberculosis being 
thus extensively advertised by the means of an official publica- 
tion operates as a decided business advantage to the owner who 



8 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

has animals for sale, establishing for them a materially ad- 
vanced market value. This accredited list is also of great ad- 
vantage to purchasers, and especially to those who, having 
eliminated tuberculosis from their own herds, prefer to pur- 
chase only such animals as come from herds which are officially 
certified as free from that disease. 

Although Massachusetts owners have not yet applied for this 
test in any great number, indications are that the movement is 
surely gaining in popularity, and that this service by Federal 
and State officials, rendered at no expense to the cattle owner, 
will finally be generally taken advantage of, and as a measure 
in the eradication of tuberculosis from Massachusetts herds 
cannot but be ultimately of great value. 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



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10 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



The preceding chart has been made from Department records 
and covers a period of eighteen years. Reference to it shows an in- 
crease this year in the total number of animals killed and on post- 
mortem examination found to be affected with tuberculosis. 

An analysis of this increase of 184 cases shows that 42 is the 
net increase in the number condemned as tuberculous on physical 
examination; 142 is the increase in the number destroyed on 
"permit to kill" warrants, divided and compared with the 
record of 1918, as follows: 57 reacted to tests made by De- 
partment veterinarians; 26 reacted to tests made by United 
States government inspectors; 29 reacted to tests made by 
private veterinarians; and 30 were killed on physical exami- 
nation by Department inspectors. 

The low record of tuberculosis cases shown in the years 1914 
and 1915 is misleading, for the reason that on account of the 
prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease during those years ex- 
aminations and inspections were necessarily suspended. 

Following are various tables showing the extent of the work 
of the Department in connection with the control of bovine 
tuberculosis in Massachusetts for the year ending Nov. 30, 
1919: — 

Massachusetts Cattle. 



Cattle reported as diseased in 1918 disposed of in 1919, . 17 

Cattle reported as diseased during the year, . . . 1,478 

Disposal of Above Animals. 



1,495 





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Reported by inspectors, owners, etc., 
Reacted to Department tests, 
Reacted to private tests, .... 
Reacted to United States tests, . 


793 
4 


3 


60 
138 
121 

71 


15 
9 

7 
7 


43 
1 


190 


13 

17 

3 


1,117 
164 
136 

78 


Totals, 


797 


3 


390 


38 


44 


190 


33 


1,495 

: 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



11 



The preceding table shows the disposal of Massachusetts cattle 
suspected of tuberculosis and reported from all different sources . 

Following is a tabulation of tuberculin tests only, made by 
Department inspectors and reported by private veterinarians, 
showing also the disposal of such reactors as came under the 
jurisdiction of the Department and such as could be arranged 
for by consultation with owners : — 

Department Tests. 



Premises on which tests were made, 


26 


Number of animals tested, . . . . . . . 


. 774 


Number of reactors, 


. 213 


Disposal of Reactors. 




Killed, lesions found, . . . . ... 


. 106 


Killed, no lesions found, ...... 


9 


Killed by owner, no killing order issued, 


4 


Died, 


1 


Awaiting action, 


93 



Note. — In addition to above, 32 animals which reacted in 1918 were 
killed. 



Tests reported by Private Veterinarians. 

Number of herds in which animals were reported, 

Number of animals tested, 

Number of reactors, 



Disposal of Reactors. 
Slaughtered by owner, no record of post-mortem findings, 

Condemned on physical examination, 

Died, no post-mortem examination made, .... 

Killed, lesions found, 

Killed, no lesions found, 

Showing no physical symptoms of tuberculosis, no record of dis- 
posal, 

Awaiting action, 



134 
1,802 

562 



221 
4 
1 

120 

7 

182 

27 



Note. — In addition, 1 animal reacting to test made in 1918 was killed 
and lesions found. 



During the year Department inspectors physically examined 
1,252 herds of Massachusetts cattle comprising 13,163 head, of 
which number 991 were killed and found diseased. 



12 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Interstate Cattle. 

The Department has for many years maintained quarantine 
stations at Brighton, Watertown and Somerville for the receipt 
of interstate cattle consigned for sale for dairy or breeding pur- 
poses. These cattle have been assembled at the Brighton 
Stockyards, where Department inspectors have applied the tuber- 
culin test to such animals as had not been tested previous to 
shipment, and to those on which, having been previously tested, 
the record was not approved and accepted by the Commissioner. 

On July 1, 1919, the Brighton Stockyards were taken over by 
the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of 
Agriculture. As a measure in the movement toward eradication 
of bovine tuberculosis on the part of the Federal government, a 
new B. A. I. regulation applying to the interstate shipment of 
cattle went into effect on that date. 

This regulation provides that all cattle for dairy or breeding 
purposes over six months of age moving from one State to an- 
other, unless to "public stockyards" (so designated by Bureau 
regulations), shall have passed a tuberculin test applied by 
veterinarians approved by both Federal and State authorities. 

Realizing that many of the cattle shipped interstate to the 
quarantine stations mentioned above, for the weekly cattle 
market at Brighton, are from sections of New England where 
veterinarians are not readily available for testing, the Bureau 
officials decided, as a convenience to shippers, to declare the 
Department's testing station at Brighton "public stockyards" 
under the meaning of their regulations, and to which cattle may 
be shipped without having been tested, they being tested upon 
arrival under supervision of Federal inspectors. 

Although the State's jurisdiction of the testing has been 
formally released to the United States government inspectors, 
we have agreed to co-operate with and assist them in doing the 
work without accepting any responsibility for condemnation of 
the reacting animals. ' The statistics of the work done appear, 
therefore, in separate tabulations, one covering our work singly 
as a State department, for the period of the year up to July 
7, 1919, and another referring to that done in co-operation with 
the government officials. 



1920.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 13 

The protection of Massachusetts cattle interests at this sta- 
tion, through which so many animals pass to the farms of the 
State, is being carefully attended to by our force of inspectors 
there present. We are at all times concerned that the State 
laws and regulations are complied with, and particularly that 
no interstate cattle affected with tuberculosis shall be released 
at this point for any purpose except immediate slaughter. 

Following are tabulations showing in detail the interstate 
cattle work of the Department at Brighton and other points: — 

At Beighton Quarantine Station from Dec. 1, 1918, to July 7, 1919. 

Number held from 1918 for tuberculin retest in 1919, . 11 

Number accepted on approved records of test, . . 404 

Number received and tuberculin tested, .... 9,164 

9,579 



Disposal of Above Animals. 

Number released on accepted records of test, . . . 404 

Number released on first test, 8,754 

Number released on second test, . . . . . . 131 

Number condemned, lesions of tuberculosis found, . . 218 

Number condemned, lesions of tuberculosis not found, . 44 
Number slaughtered on " permit to kill" warrant, lesions 

found, 19 

Number slaughtered on " permit to kill" warrant, lesions 

not found, 5 

Number released for slaughter at owner's request, . . 2 

Number died, 1 

Number lost, 1 



At Other Points from Dec 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919. 

Number condemned in 1918 awaiting slaughter in 1919, 1 

Number held from 1918 for test or other disposal in 1919, 210 

Number held from 1918 for retest or other disposal in 1919, 13 

Number received during year, 6,056 



Disposal of Above Animals. 
Number released on accepted records of test, . 
Number released on first test, .... 
Number released on second test, 

Number reacted and died, 

Number reacted and held till 1920 for disposal, 
Number condemned, lesions of tuberculosis found, 



4,401 

1,716 

24 

1 

8 
47 



9,579 



6,280 



14 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Number condemned, lesions of tuberculosis not found, . 

Number slaughtered on "permit to kill" warrant, lesions 
found, 

Number slaughtered on "permit to kill" warrant, lesions 
not found, 

Number condemned awaiting report of slaughter, . 

Number remaining in State temporarily, no test required, 

Number of range cattle, held for test, but later slaugh- 
tered, 

Number held awaiting test or other disposal, . 



9 

9 

2 
2 
1 

23 
37 



6,280 



Note. — One hundred and one of the above tested cattle were young 
range animals from the West or Southwest, and were tested by United 
States government inspectors by the "intradermal method," in an ".ac- 
credited herd" test, copy of record being furnished to this Department. 



At Brighton Quarantine Station, in Co-operation 
States Bureau of Animal Industry, from July 7, 
30, 1919. 

Number accepted on approved records of test, 
Number received and tuberculin tested, .... 



with United 
1919, to Nov. 



3,277 
3,000 



Disposal of Above Animals. 




Number released on accepted records of test, . 


. 3,277 


Number released on first test, 


2,569 


Number released on second test, 


104 


Number reacted and slaughtered, lesions of tuberculosis 


found, 


213 


Number reacted and slaughtered, lesions of tuberculosis 


not found, 


114 


Summary. 




Total interstate dairy cattle received at Brighton station, 


15,856 


Total interstate dairy cattle received at other points, 


6,280 


Origin of the above Interstate Cattle. 




Vermont, 


7,898 


Maine, 


6,393 


New Hampshire, 


5,990 


New York, 


1,099 


Connecticut, 


154 


Rhode Island, 


58 


Other States and Canada, 


544 



6,277 



6,277 



22,136 



22,136 



1920.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 15 

Animals other than dairy cattle requiring tuberculin test re- 
ceived at other points than the quarantine stations may be 
classified as below : — 

Cattle not requiring Tuberculin Test. 

Cattle for immediate slaughter, 2,139 

Calves for immediate slaughter, . 2,743 

Dairy calves under six months old, . 205 

Cattle returned from out-of-State pastures, 565 

Feeder cattle, . . : . 70 

Died or lost, ■ . 3 

Returned from temporary stay in other States for breeding pur- 
poses, etc., . 25 

Remaining in State for brief periods only, for breeding purposes, 

etc., • 11 

Reshipped out of State soon after arrival, 75 

For temporary stay at sales or exhibitions, . . . . 702 



Total, , 6,538 

There are large slaughtering establishments at Haverhill, 
West Newbury and Springfield where Federal inspection of 
slaughtered animals is maintained, to which points cattle and 
calves for immediate slaughter may be shipped without special 
permit, record of which is not kept by this Department. There 
are on an average several thousand animals shipped to these 
points annually, and it is estimated that at least 90 to 95 per 
cent of them come into Massachusetts from other States. 

Twenty permits allowing shipment of cattle into the State 
were brought over from the previous year, report on them not 
having been received before the close of that year. There were 
1,302 permits issued during the year; on 14 of these no report 
has yet been received. It was found that cattle were brought in 
without permits in 158 instances, comprising 501 animals; 227 
of these were accompanied by approved records of test; 125 
were tested by Department veterinarians; 74 were Massachu- 
setts cattle returned from pastures in other States; 27 were 
calves under six months old; 36 were slaughtered at once; and 
the remaining 12 were disposed of as requiring no test or were 
held for test at a later date. These figures are all included in 
the statistical tables. 



16 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



During the spring and early summer Massachusetts veterina- 
rians inspected and tagged in the vicinity of 800 head of cattle 
that were to be sent into other States for pasture. The larger 
part of these cattle went into the State of New Hampshire, 
under permit from the Commissioner of Agriculture of that 
State, and upon being returned to Massachusetts were checked 
up as far as possible by their tag numbers. Many of them 
were returned through the Brighton Stockyards. 

At a sale of Ayrshire cattle held in Springfield in June, 101 
animals came from other States, 9 of them being sold to remain 
in Massachusetts. On the occasion of the New England Fair 
held in Worcester during the first week of September, 139 head 
of cattle came from other States, 21 being sold to remain. At 
the Eastern States Exposition held in Springfield about the 
middle of September, and a sale of Aberdeen-Angus cattle held 
in connection therewith, 458 head were brought from outside 
the State, and 8 head of the Aberdeen-Angus breed were sold 
to remain in the State. At this exposition there were 56 ex- 
hibitors all told, a total of 685 head of cattle were shown, 357 
swine and 98 sheep. 

The Department keeps records of all animals received at the 
several quarantine stations, also the States from which neat 
cattle are shipped, as shown by the following figures: — 



Receipts of Stock at the Watertown Stockyards for the Year ending Nov. 80, 

1919. 



New Hampshire cattle, 

Vermont cattle, 

Massachusetts cattle, 

Calves, 

Sheep and lambs, 

Swine, 



4,392 
7,073 
84 
21,636 
2,544 
5,291 



Receipts of Stock at the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company's 
Yards at Somerville for the Year ending Nov. 80, 1919. 

Maine cattle, 

New Hampshire cattle, 



Vermont cattle, . 
Massachusetts cattle, 
Western cattle, . 
Canada cattle, . 



3,261 
2,456 
11,416 
849 
3,374 
1,216 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



17 



Calves, 

Sheep and lambs, 

Swine, 



120,249 

204,859 

1,286,700 



Receipts of Stock at Brighton for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1919. 
Maine cattle, 10,085 



New Hampshire cattle, 
Vermont cattle, 
Massachusetts cattle, 
New York cattle, 
Western cattle, . 
Canada cattle, . 
Calves, 

Sheep and lambs, 
Swine, ... 



10,981 

3,475 

14,027 

19,712 

31,615 

1,500 

75,150 

7,180 

39,810 



Glandees. 

This fatal disease of the equine species, and which is of great 
additional importance on account of its communicability to the 
human subject, formerly prevailed to such an extent in Massa- 
chusetts that its control was a subject of great concern not 
only to the officials of this Department and to public health 
authorities but also to owners of the several types of horses 
used for farm work, for general business purposes, for exhibi- 
tion, breeding, or as a means of recreation and pleasure. 

Although the horse is now supplanted to some extent by 
motor vehicles as a factor of business or pleasure, the demands 
of the great war for his service, — indispensable in many 
branches of army work, — and his priceless value as the only 
animal available for the manufacture of the many sera now 
used in the prevention and cure of diseases of other species of 
animals and especially of the human subject, point to the neces- 
sity for his continued production in large numbers and for his 
being kept free from contagious disease. 

We are therefore actively engaged in the suppression of 
glanders in Massachusetts as the one principal disease of a con- 
tagious nature that affects horses, mules and asses. That we 
are meeting with success in this direction is shown by our 
records, which are tabulated and charted on pages 20 and 21 of 
this report. 



18 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

The remarkable reduction in number of cases found this past 
year really indicates that complete extermination of this dis- 
ease may be hoped for. During the year 1913 nearly 1,100 
horses and mules were killed in Massachusetts on account of 
being affected with glanders. From that time to the present, as 
a result of improved methods in control work inaugurated that 
year and since improved and perfected, there has been a steady 
reduction in the prevalence of this disease to the small number 
of 23 cases, the record for 1919. 

In the city of Boston alone, formerly the greatest center of 
this infection, the number of horses killed has dropped from 
556 in the year 1913 to 4 in 1919. We are therefore apparently 
justified in predicting that in the near future this disease will be 
completely eradicated or so limited in prevalence that it will 
cease to be of great importance. 

The successful methods of control heretofore mentioned have 
been pursued during the past year. They may be briefly re- 
ferred to as comprising the following: — 

Immediate quarantine of all reported cases; prompt killing 
of all clinical cases, followed by disinfection of the premises 
where kept, of the blacksmith shops where shod, and of water- 
ing troughs where they were in the habit of drinking; exami- 
nation and re-examination of all contact animals, together with 
application of the several diagnostic tests when necessary; ex- 
tension of the plan of testing whole stables; closing of public 
watering troughs in sections where an outbreak of the disease 
occurs; testing of all horses and mules shipped interstate from 
New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island, unless 
accompanied by satisfactory records of recent tests. 

The Department's records for the year ending Nov. 30, 1919, 
show the following facts: — 

At the end of 1918, 7 animals were under observation. Of 
this number, 1 has been killed as a positive case, and 6 have 
been released as free from the disease. 

During the past year 194 suspected animals have been ex- 
amined. Of this number, 22 animals proved to be positive 
cases and were destroyed in accordance with the requirements 
of the law; 9 died or were killed by owners before diagnosis 
had been made; 152 were released as free from the disease; 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



19 



and 8 were still held under observation at the end of the year. 
Two animals were killed by order of the Department, post- 
mortem examination of which did not reveal the presence of the 
disease, and full appraised value of which was $100. One 
animal was killed at owner's request, and no lesions of the 
disease were found. 

Horses reported as Suspected. 

Brought forward from the year 1918, 7 

Reported by renderer, 1 

Reported by inspectors, Department agents, veterinarians, own- 
ers, etc., 138 

Contact animals examined in stable tests, ..... 55 



Disposal of Above Horses. 

Appraised and killed, positive, . . 

Killed by owner, reported by renderer, no award, positive, 

Died, positive, 



Killed at owner's request, no lesions found, . 
Appraised and killed, no lesions found, . 
Killed by owners or died, no lesions found, . 
Released as not affected with glanders, . 
Awaiting disposition, ■. .... 



21 
1 
1 



23 

1 

2 

9 

158 



201 



201 



Following is a table giving the number of cases of this disease 
covering a period of twenty-one years. In this table cases 
which have occurred in the city of Boston are shown separately, 
on account of the fact that Boston was for many years the 
storm center of this disease. Special tabulation of the number 
of cases in that city has always been made in order that its 
relative importance to other sections of the State may be 
studied. 



20 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Number of Cases. 





Cases. 


Year. 


In Boston. 


In Other 
Places. 


Totals. 


1899 • . ... 


159 


384 


543 


1900 


192 


507 


699 


1901 


197 


548 


745 


1902, 


155 


580 


735 


1903 


250 


610 


860 


1904, 


254 


555 


809 


1905 


210 


414 


624 


1906, 


194 


376 


570 


1907 


308 


403 


711 


1908, 


389 


552 


941 


1909 . 


278 


406 


684 


1910, 


314 


362 


676 


1911, . 


387 


565 


952 


1912, . . 


395 


446 


841 


1913 


556 


528 


1,084 


1914, . 


355 


495 


850 


1915, 


152 


250 


402 


1916, 


157 


278 


435 


1917 


80 


206 


286 


1918, . 


89 


104 


193 


1919, 


4 


19 


23 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



21 



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22 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

The Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals, the Boston Workhorse Relief Association, the Animal 
Rescue League, and the branches of these various associations 
in many cities and towns of the State have through their 
agents always been of material aid to the Department in the 
work of controlling this disease. Their close observation of 
working animals of all classes has in the past, when the disease 
was more prevalent, brought to light many showing suspicious 
symptoms, which they have promptly reported to this Depart- 
ment, and many of the animals so reported have proved to be 
positive cases of the disease. 

The constant activity of the humane societies in removing 
disabled animals from work and destroying those which, on 
account of extreme age or poor condition, are no longer useful 
has undoubtedly been a factor in the suppression of glanders, 
as such animals are very susceptible to infection. 

The maximum amount, fixed by chapter 646 of the Acts of 
1913, which may be paid for any one animal condemned and 
destroyed on account of being affected with glanders being $50, 
the appraised value of the animals condemned is a subject of 
considerable interest. Of the 23 positive cases of glanders 
occurring during the year, 21 were appraised at a total valua- 
tion of $2,250, the average amount per animal being $107.14. 
On the remaining 2 animals no appraisal was made for the fol- 
lowing reasons: 1 of them was reported by a Tenderer and 1 
died, the disease having been found on autopsy. 

Of the 21 horses which were appraised, 18 have been paid for, 
the amount paid being $900; in 1 case there was no award, as 
the horse had not been in the Commonwealth the required length 
of time; and 2 cases are awaiting the filing of claims for payment. 

Complement-fixation Test. 

Of the 7 horses under observation at the end of the year 
1918, 3 were subjected to the complement-fixation test, with the 
result that they were released as probably free from the disease. 

One hundred and twenty-five samples of blood were taken 
from 101 horses during the year 1919, and the following dis- 
posal of the animals was made: — 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



23 



Animals held over from 1918, disposed of as above, 
Animals released on first test, . 
Released on second test, .... 
Died or killed by owner after first test, . 
Died or killed by owner after second test, 
Condemned on first test, .... 
Condemned on second test, 
Condemned on third test, .... 
Held for further observation, . 



3 

63 
12 
3 
1 
9 
1 
1 



101 



Ophthalmic-mallein Test. 
This test has been applied to 152 State and 653 interstate 
horses during the year. It happens that the test in some in- 
stances was repeated on the same animals, and 831 such tests 
have been made. The results are as follows: — 

Tests giving positive reaction, . . 17 

Tests giving no reaction, 793 

Tests giving unsatisfactory results, 21 



831 



In the so-called "stable tests," or tests of all animals in 
stables where glanders has been found, 55 horses have been 
tested in 7 stables, and among them 1 case of glanders has been 
found. 

Interstate Horses. 

Horses, asses and mules shipped to Massachusetts from the 
States of New York, New r Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode 
Island must be accompanied by a permit from the Commis- 
sioner of Animal Industry. This regulation was established on 
account of the prevalence of glanders among the horses of the 
States mentioned, and in order that upon arrival the animals 
might be immediately located and examined by agents of this 
Department. 

The number of horses, mules and asses shipped from these 
States has decreased from 4,425 in the year 1918 to 4,168 in the 
year ending Nov. 30, 1919, the statistics following: — 



24 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 



Equine Animals from New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and 

Rhode Island. 

Mules, 11 

Horses, 4,157 

4,168 

Disposal of Above Animals. 

Released upon physical examination, 3,452 

Released upon accompanying papers without examination, 43 

Released after test, 673 

4,168 

It is worthy of notice that no interstate horses or mules were 
condemned this year as affected with glanders. Many of the 
animals brought from the above-mentioned States are of the 
better class, being highly bred horses used for carriage work and 
breeding purposes. The second-hand horses, which are trafficked 
in and sent from the markets of one State to those of another 
for purpose of public sale, have been specially watched on account 
of their being considered more liable to be subjects of contagious 
disease than the higher class animals, and if not accompanied 
by a satisfactory certificate of test have been tested on arrival 
by inspectors of the Department. 

Rabies. 

The control and eradication of this disease is one of the most 
important duties of the Department because of its communica- 
bility to man from the lower animals, its rapid spread if uncon- 
trolled, especially among dogs, and the extremely high rate of 
mortality which in all species follows its development. An 
outbreak in any locality, if it becomes at all extensive, is apt 
also to create more or less panic, especially if persons are bitten 
by any of the animals positively known at the time to be rabid, 
or which are subsequently proved to have been infected when 
the bite was inflicted. 

The measures necessarily taken to effect the control of an 
outbreak are also accompanied by much inconvenience, trouble 
and expense on the part of the public. In addition to the 
monetary loss caused by the death of valuable dogs and other 
animals found to be positive cases of the disease, the expense 



1920.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 25 

of confinement and restraint of those exposed to it but found 
later not to have been infected is not inconsiderable. 

Our records show a gradually increasing prevalence of rabies 
during the past three years, which in our opinion is principally 
due to new centers of the contagion being established here by 
infected dogs coming from neighboring States where the dis- 
ease has raged extensively during that ' period. Its extension 
to Massachusetts has been felt to be inevitable owing to the 
facility by which it can be spread by roaming dogs. Many of 
these animals ordinarily kept under proper conditions may have 
become infected unbeknown to their owners, and, obeying what 
is commonly an early inclination in the development of the 
disease, may wander far away from home within a few hours 
even, and spread contagion widely before searched for by their 
owners. Such dogs are often never found by their owners. 

The ownerless or tramp dog is, however, a more important 
factor in spreading this contagion because no one pays any 
attention to his physical condition or his whereabouts, and in 
many localities no attempt is made to enforce the laws relating 
to him. He roams unrestricted and is a menace to the com- 
munity in many ways. 

Had it not been for the very thorough and efficient control 
work carried on by the authorities of the neighboring State of 
Connecticut, where rabies has extensively prevailed for the past 
three years and where several thousands of unlicensed dogs have 
been destroyed during that period, we would undoubtedly have 
been confronted with a much more serious condition than now 
exists. 

Our local inspectors of animals are familiar with the situa- 
tion, and those of border towns have been specially advised as 
to the value of early quarantine, thorough investigation and 
prompt reports in detail to the Department's office. If we can 
procure the co-operation of town and city officials, dog owners 
and the general public, an outbreak of rabies in any community 
can generally be suppressed before it becomes serious. With- 
out question, a better enforcement of our dog laws would 
materially assist in preventing the further spread of this con- 
tagion and operate to reduce its present prevalence in several 
communities. 



26 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Following is a general outline of the Department's present 
methods in rabies control work : — 

Upon report being made to the Department that a person 
has been bitten by a dog, the inspector of animals of the town 
or city in which it occurs is ordered to make an examination of 
the animal, and, even if it appears to be healthy, to have it re- 
strained for a period of fourteen days for the purpose of obser- 
vation. The restraint for this length of time is deemed neces- 
sary for the reason that competent authorities have shown that 
in some instances the bite of a dog infected with rabies may 
communicate the infection fourteen days before the animal 
shows clinical symptoms. If at the end of this period no symp- 
toms of rabies have developed, the animal may be released. In 
case a person is bitten by a dog which, upon examination by the 
inspector of animals or any other person, shows evidence of 
already being affected with rabies, or there is a history of its 
having been in contact with a rabid animal, the dog in either 
case is immediately confined in strict quarantine. If it is sub- 
sequently killed or dies, its head is at once sent to the Depart- 
ment's office, and a laboratory examination of the brain is made 
for the purpose of positively determining whether or not the 
animal was affected with the disease. Information as to the 
laboratory findings is promptly communicated to the person or 
persons who have been bitten. The State Department of 
Health is given the information received in every case of dog 
bite reported to this office, whether the bite has been inflicted 
by an animal suspected of rabies or not. We also order the 
local inspector of animals not only to ascertain the names of all 
persons who have been bitten by dogs suspected of rabies but 
to find out if animals have also been bitten, and if so to place 
the same in quarantine for a period of at least ninety days. All 
dogs which are found to have been in contact with a rabid 
animal, whether or not it appears that they have been bitten 
by it, are also placed in quarantine for the same period. 

If an unusual number of cases of rabies is found to exist in 
any town or city, the selectmen or the mayor or board of alder- 
men are asked to issue a restraining order, under the provisions 
of section 158 of chapter 102 of the Revised Laws. Such an 
order obliges all dog owners to confine their animals to their 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



.27 



own premises for a certain period, or take them therefrom only 
on leash. This restraining order is much more effective in the 
local control of an outbreak than is an order which compels 
owners to muzzle the animals only but not restrain them, as a 
muzzled animal let loose may in some way get the muzzle off 
and bite other animals or people. A muzzled dog at large may 
therefore become much more dangerous than an unmuzzled 
one which is at all times confined upon owner's premises or 
taken therefrom only on leash. Dogs found running at large 
while a restraining order issued by town or city authorities is 
in force may be killed on the issuance of a warrant for the same 
to a police officer. It was found advisable to ask for gen- 
eral restraining orders- in five towns of the Commonwealth 
during the past year. These orders were for periods of ninety 
days. 

Our force of district agents, all of whom are veterinarians 
and located in different parts of the State, together with the 
local inspectors of animals, of whom there is one or more in 
every city and town of the State, constitutes an organization 
by which systematic local control of an outbreak of this dis- 
ease can generally be accomplished within a reasonably short 
time. 

During the year ending Nov. 30, 1919, 408 animals were re- 
ported to the Department for diagnosis, observation or quaran- 
tine on account of the prevalence of rabies, and 9 were brought 
forward from the year 1918. The records have been classified 
as follows: — 

Animals suspected of rabies, 109 

Animals exposed to rabies (4 reported in 1918, 174 in 1919), . . 178 
Animals which have inflicted bites upon persons (5 reported in 

1918, 125 in 1919), 130 



Animals suspected of Rabies. 



t 


Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Cats. 


Diagnosis positive 

Diagnosis negative, 

Diagnosis questionable 


89 

13 

4 


1 


1 
1 



28 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Of the 89 dogs classed as " diagnosis positive," 39 had bitten 
persons. 

Of the 4 cases classed as "diagnosis questionable," 1 dog was 
reported as being affected with rabies, but from description of 
symptoms and as head was not obtainable for examination it is 
not recorded as a positive case; 1 dog after showing symptoms 
indicating rabies disappeared and could not be located; 1 show- 
ing symptoms gave negative diagnosis to laboratory examina- 
tion; and the head of 1 animal arrived at laboratory in such a 
state of decomposition that examination could not be made. 

Animal ? exposed to Rabies. 





Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Cats. 


Pigs. 


Horses. 


Number released after a quarantine of 


79 


5 




2 




ninety days. 












Number killed, no symptoms having de- 


34 


- 


2 


- 


- 


veloped. 












Number killed, positive symptoms having 


16 


11 


- 


2 


1 


developed. 












Number still held under observation, 


26 


— 


— 


- 


— 


;_ 










3 



Animals which have inflicted Bites upon Persons. 



Dogs. 



Number killed during quarantine, no symptoms having developed, . 
Number released after fourteen days' quarantine, .... 
Number still held under observation, 



13 
115 

2 



Nine animals which were under observation at the close of 
the year 1918 were released, no symptoms of rabies having 
developed. 

During the year we have received reports of 179 persons 
having been bitten by dogs. In all these cases the dogs have 
been immediately quarantined for observation, in accordance 
with our custom as previously referred to, except in those in- 
stances where the animals were immediately killed. Some of 
the quarantined dogs were killed by request of owners and 
others were killed on account of development of unmistakable 
symptoms of the disease. Of the 179 cases of dog bite, 131 of 
them were inflicted by dogs proved not to be affected with 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



29 



rabies, 43 were inflicted by dogs proved to be positive cases of the 
disease, in 3 of the cases the laboratory diagnosis was question- 
able, and in 2 the dogs are now in quarantine for observation. 

There have been examined in the laboratory during the past 
year the brains of 86 dogs, 1 cat and 1 cow. Of this number, 
63 dogs, 1 cat and 1 cow showed positive evidence of the 
disease; in 21 dogs the diagnosis was negative, and the brains 
of 2 dogs were so decomposed at the time of examination that 
no diagnosis could be made. Of the 408 animals reported for 
observation, diagnosis or quarantine, '27 were, as far as the 
Department could determine, unlicensed and ownerless dogs, 18 
of which proved to be positive cases of the disease. 

The following table shows the number of positive cases of 
rabies by cities and towns : — 



City or Town. 


Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Horses. 


Pigs. 


Cats. 


Arlington 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Attleboro, . 






3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Berkley, 






1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Brockton, . 






8 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Concord, 






4 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Dartmouth, 






1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Dighton, 






3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Easton, 






1 


- 




- 


- 


Fall River, . 






7 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Fitchburg, . 






1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Freetown, . 






2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Groton, 






1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Holden, 






1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Lincoln, 






2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Littleton, 






1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Maynard, . 






1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Middleborough, . 






7 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Milton, 






1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


New Bedford, 






15 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Newton, 






4 


- 


- 


- 


1 


North Attleborough, 






1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Northborough, . 






1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Norton, 






2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Raynham, . 

E 






1 


- 


- 


- 


- 



30 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



1 

City or Town. 


Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Horses . 


Pigs. 


1 

Cats. 


Townsend, 


5 
1 
1 
5 
1 
1 
5 
8 
1 
1 
3 
2 
1 


3 

7 


- 


1 
1 


- 


Totals, .... 


105 


12 


1 


2 


1 


- . 



One case of rabies developed in New York State, it later 
being shown that the animal had been exposed to the disease 
while in Massachusetts. One dog exposed in May developed 
the disease in November, with no evidence of additional ex- 
posure in the meantime. One case was proved to have been in 
contact with a herd of 12 cows, 10 of which developed the 
disease and were killed. 

Following is a chart showing the proved cases of rabies in the 
several species of animals covering the period from 1905 to 1919, 
inclusive. 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



31 





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32 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 



Hog Choleea. 

During the past year the Department has continued and ma- 
terially increased its work inaugurated in 1914 for control of 
the contagious diseases affecting swine. Of these, the principal 
one, hog cholera, formerly prevailed to such an extent and 
carried such a high mortality rate that the raising of swine in 
any considerable numbers in this State was a very uncertain 
enterprise, especially so if their principal food was garbage. 
Hog cholera would often break out, and, sweeping through a 
herd, would destroy many animals and leave others unfit for 
further feeding. 

The utilization of garbage, a product recognized to contain 
all the food elements necessary for swine and which in many 
communities was being entirely wasted, seemed an economic 
necessity and an enterprise which it was generally conceded 
could be successfully carried out and rendered financially safe, 
provided the one great scourge of that species of animal could 
be controlled. 

The industry of raising pure-bred swine, a business of rapidly 
increasing proportions and in which a large amount of capital 
is invested, also has been considered to be in large measure 
dependent for its success upon the protection of the animals 
from the ravages of contagious disease. 

Toward this objective the work of the Department has now 
been directed for a period of six years. It was carefully planned 
and then inaugurated under careful supervision. Its many new 
phases have been carefully studied as they have appeared, and 
the execution of the work in the field has been improved as 
practical experience has shown to be advisable. We now un- 
hesitatingly refer to it as an important public sanitary control 
work, the value of which has been shown by the economical 
results obtained, namely, the successful utilization of a great 
waste product and the conservation both of large amounts of 
food for human consumption and of commercial by-products of 
great value. It has also greatly stimulated interest in live- 
stock production, and has fostered a business enterprise of no 
small proportions. 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



33 



The reports of our inspectors of animals show that the num- 
ber of swine found on the farms at the 1919 inspection exceeded 
the record of 1918 by 26,456, a gain of 32 per cent in the year, 
and 4,193 more people are recorded on the list of swine owners 
in 1919 than in 1918. These figures indicate a rapid growth 
of the swine-raising industry in Massachusetts under present 
conditions of protection afforded it by control of contagious 
disease. 

Following is a list of cities and towns in which hog cholera 
prevention work has been carried on during the year ending 
Nov. 30, 1919: — 









Inoculations 






Herds 
inoculated. 








City ob Town. 


Serum and 
Virus. 


Serum 
only. 


Total. 


Abington, ...... 


3 


301 


397 


69.8 


Adams, 










4 


52 


4 


56 


Agawam, . 










16 


158 


68 


226 


Amesbury, 










9 


15 


8 


23 


Amherst, . 










5 


76 


91 


167 


Andover, . 










6 


96 


- 206 


302 


Arlington, . 










1 





3 


3 


Ashby, 










1 


22 


25 


47 


Athol, 










4 


9 


3 


12 


Attleboro, . 










6 


27 


25 


52 


Auburn, 










13 


33 


4 


37 


Ayer, . 










9 


26 


668 


694 


Barnstable, 










13 


121 


43 


164 


Barre, 










1 


35 


27 


62 


Bedford, 










5 


41 


47 


88 


Belchertown, 










1 


6 


3 


9 


Belmont, . 










9 


1,101 


1,333 


2,434 


Berlin, 










4 


19 


9 


28 


Bernardston, 










1 


15 





15 


Beverly, 










2 


25 


26 


51 


Billerica, . 










4 


85 


36 


121 


Bolton, 
Boston, 






- 




4 
10 


59 

572 


39 

868 


98 
1,440 


Bourne, 










4 


7 





7 


Boxford, 










2 


11 


20 


31 


Braintree, . 










3 





10 


10 


Brewster, . 










1 


9 


6 


15 


Bridge water, 










4 


217 


46 


263 


Brimfield, . 










4 


1 


12 


13 


Brockton, . 










6 


750 


798 


1,548 


Brookfield, 










4 


60 


27 


87 


Brookline, . 










3 


25 


21 


46 


Burlington, 










5 


641 


548 


1,189 


Cambridge, 










2 





26 


26 


Canton, 










4 


28 


29 


57 


Charlemont, 










1 


16 





16 


Charlton, . 










1 


15 





15 


Chatham, . 










2 


2 





2 


Chelmsford, 










5 


36 


108 


144 


Chelsea, 










2 





20 


20 


Cheshire, . 










2 


9 





9 


Chicopee, . 










50 


361 


137 


498 


Clinton, 










9 


26 


30 


56 


Cohasset, . 










4 


19 


36 


55 


Concord, . 










8 


219 


154 


373 


Dal ton, 










7 


167 


111 


278 


Dana, 










1 


10 


15 


25 



34 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 









Inoculations. 






Herds 
inoculated. 








City or Town. 


Serum and 
Virus. 


Serum 
only. 


Total. 


Danvers, 


3 


335 


230 


565 


Dedham, 










8 


115 


99 


214 


Deer field, 










5 


29 


16 


45 


Dighton, 










1 


9 


10 


19 


Dover, 










8 


197 


268 


465 


Dracut, 










3 


28 


6 


34 


Dudley, 










5 


14 


24 


38 


Easthampton, . 








15 


52 


5 


57 


East Longmeadow, . 








8 


130 


30 


160 


E^ston, 








1 


3 


5 


8 


Edgar town, 








7 


6 





6 


Fairhaven, 








4 


3 


12 


15 


Falmouth, . 








4 


45 


26 


71 


Fitchburg, 








62 


592 


476 


1,068 


Foxborough, 








4 


54 


27 


81 


Framingham, 








4 


85 


63 


148 


Gardner, . 








32 


79 


142 


221 


Georgetown, 








1 


2 





2 


Gloucester, 








26 


421 


600 


1,021 


Grafton, 








27 


339 


234 


573 


Granby, 








2 


24 





24 


Great Barrington, 








9 


16 


20 


36 


Greenfield, 








3 


212 


306 


518 


Groton, 








5 


86 


95 


181 


Groveland, 








1 


2 





2 


Hadley, 








4 


25 





25 


Hamilton, . 








1 


10 





10 


Hampden, . 








2 


28 





28 


Hancock, . 








1 





2 


2 


Hanson, 








1 


1 





1 


Hardwick, 








3 


16 


33 


49 


Harvard, . 








11 


127 


73 


200 


Harwich, . 








3 


3 


113 


116 


Hatfield, 








6 


2 


8 


10 


Haverhill, . 








8 


65 


38 


103 


Hingham, . 








2 


18 





18 


Hinsdale, . 








1 


2 


6 


8 


Holbrook, . 








3 


1 





1 


Holden, 








7 


79 


73 


152 


Holliston, . 








2 


31 


28 


59 


Holyoke, . 








18 


335 


490 


825 


Hopkinton, 








1 


2 





2 


Hudson, 








3 


65 


36 


101 


Hull, . 








1 





20 


20 


Huntington, 








1 


3 





3 


Ipswich, 








4 


121 


214 


335 


Kingston, . 








7 


22 





22 


Lakeville, . 








1 


92 


75 


167 


Lancaster, . 








9 


61 


47 


108 


Lanesborough, . 








2 


54 





54 


Lawrence, . 








6 


24 


27 


51 


Lee, . 








8 


52 


164 


216 


Lenox, 








10 


83 


3 


86 


Leominster, 








5 


110 


128 


238 


Lexington, 








28 


2,766 


2,887 


5,653 


Lincoln, 








10 


674 


376 


1,050 


Littleton, . 








4 


300 


171 


471 


Longmeadow, . 








6 


143 


92 


235 


Lowell, 








9 


212 


83 


295 


Ludlow, 








17 


307 


369 


676 


Lunenburg, 








4 


17 


16 


33 


Lynn, 








8 


145 


73 


218 


Maiden, 








2 


12 





12 


Manchester, 








9 


84 


55 


139 


Mansfield, . 








3 


17 





17 


Marblehead, 








18 


270 


270 


540 


Marion, . . - 








4 


25 


16 


41 


Marshfield, 








3 


27 


22 


49 


Mashpee, . 








1 


10 





10 


Maynard, . 








1 


64 


5 


69 


Medfield, . 








2 


196 


169 


365 


Medford, . 








3 


57 


53 


110 


Medway, . 








3 


2 


4 


6 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



35 





Herds 
inoculated. 


Inoculations. 


City or Town. 


Serum and 
Virus. 


Serum 
only. 


Total. 


Melrose, ...... 


4 


1 


6 


7 


Mendon, 








1 


4 





4 


Merrimac, . 








1 


14 


1 


15 


Methuen, . 








11 


82 


59 


141 


Middleborough, 








4 


80 


98 


178 


Middleton, 








3 


11 


4 


15 


Milford, 








11 


35 


8 


43 


Millbury, . 








7 


108 


58 


166 


Milton, 








4 


180 


322 


502 


Monson, 








2 


86 


84 


170 


Montague, . 








1 


6 





6 


Monterey, . 








7 


35 


47 


82 


Nantucket, 








9 


15 


4 


19 


Natick, 








4 


181 


120 


301 


Needham, . 








15 


739 


721 


1,460 


New Bedford, . ■ 








1 


38 


29 


67 


Newbury, . 








6 


27 


52 


79 


Newburyport, . 








28 


100 


46 


146 


New Marlborough, 








2 


3 





3 


Newton, 








5 


219 


145 


364 


Norfolk, 








2 


77 


111 


188 


North Adams, . 








6 


318 


318 


636 


Northampton, . 








20 


439 


271 


710 


North Andover, 








5 


11 


7 


18 


North Attleborough, 








8 


56 


141 


197 


Northbridge, 








4 


112 


176 


288 


North Brookfield, 








1 


5 


10 


15 


Northfield, 








4 


135 


329 


464 


North Reading, 








1 


79 


114 


193 


Norton, 








2 


33 


24 


57 


Norwell, 








1 


2 





2 


Norwood, . 








5 


28 


81 


109 


Orange, 








2 


19 


22 


41 


Palmer, 








3 


50 


38 


88 


Paxton, 








2 


14 


41 


55 


Peabody, . 








19 


416 


422 


838 


Pepper ell, . 








3 


22 


8 


30 


Pittsfield, . 








45 


1,252 


909 


2,161 


Plymouth, 








9 


234 


324 


558 


Provincetown, . 








34 


43 


61 


104 


Randolph, 








1 


2 


4 


6 


Reading, . 








1 


302 


487 


789 


Rehoboth, 








2 


120 


265 


385 


Revere, 








4 


653 


1,368 


2,021 


Richmond, 








1 


6 





6 


Rockport, . 








8 


142 


212 


354 


Rowley, 








1 


8 


1 


9 


Russell, 








1 


14 


8 


22 


Rutland, . 








4 


117 


26 


143 


Salem, 








9 


422 


790 


1,212 


Salisbury, . 








1 


4 


10 


14 


Sandwich, . 








3 


17 


9 


26 


Saugus, 








14 


123 


182 


305 


Scituate, . 








2 


13 


29 


42 


Seekonk, . 








71 


514 


371 


885 


Sharon, 








1 


27 


17 


44 


Shelburne, 








2 


25 





25 


Sherborn, . 








6 


176 


71 


247 


Shirley, 








1 


92 


159 


251 


Shrewsbury, 








3 


226 


607 


833 


Somerville, 








3 


13 


28 


41 


Southborough, . 








1 


1 


13 


14 


Southbridge, 








13 


26 


39 


65 


South Hadley, . 








15 


327 


186 


513 


Springfield, 








49 


1,571 


1,122 


2,693 


Stoneham, 








4 


140 


348 


488 


Stoughton, 








14 


68 


176 


244 


Sudbury, . 








2 


9 


100 


109 


Sunderland, 








5 


27 





27 


Sutton, 








8 


10 


12 


22 


Swampscott, 








1 





5 


5 


Swansea, . 








6 


267 


133 


400 


Taunton, . 

i 








16 


35 


99 


134 



36 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



City or Town. 



Herds 
inoculated. 



Templeton, 

Tewksbury, 

Tisbury, 

Topsfield, . 

Townsend, 

Tyngsborough, . 

Upton, 

Uxbridge, . 

Wakefield, . 

Wales, 

Walpole, 

Waltham , . 

Ware, . 

Wareham, . 

Warren, 

Watertown, 

Webster, 

Wellesley, . 

Wenham, . 

Westborough, 

Westfield, . 

Westford, . 

Westminster, 

Weston, 

Westport, . 

West Springfield, 

West Stockbridge, 

Westwood, 

Weymouth, 

Whately, . 

Whitman, . 

Wilbraham, 

Williamsburg, 

Williamstown, . 

Wilmington, 

Winchendon, 

Woburn, 

Worcester, . 

Wrentham, 

Totals, 



17 
1 
2 
1 
8 
1 
1 
1 
6 
1 
7 

24 
1 
7 
3 
6 
6 
2 
2 
3 

20 
2 
2 
4 

10 

12 
1 
5 
7 
1 
2 
3 
2 
4 
2 
6 
9 

41 
2 



1,589 



Inoculations. 



Serum and 
Virus. 



80 

229 

13 



51 

63 

4 

4 

73 



16 

1,504 

6 

18 

11 

453 

19 

9 

23 

235 

187 

18 

2 

40 

141 

75 



203 

163 

2 

14 

36 

7 

13 

12 

31 

139 

3,450 

44 



33,355 



Serum 
only. 



69 
92 
45 
16 
23 
87 
20 
3 

63 

1 

35 

1,730 



44 

11 

386 

47 

82 

54 

232 

171 

11 

3 

84 

121 

77 

6 

147 

170 



8 

12 

2 

5 

22 

34 

94 

3,466 

139 



34,720 



Total. 



149 

321 

58 

16 

74 

150 

24 

7 

136 

1 

51 

3,234 

6 

62 

22 

839 

66 

91 

77 

467 

358 

29 

5 

124 

262 

152 

6 

350 

333 

2 

22 

48 

9 

18 

34 

65 

233 

6,916 

183 



68,075 



The preceding table shows that work has been done in 232 
cities and tow 7 ns this year, 14 more than during 1918, and 
necessitating 2,545 visits by one or more inspectors. In addi- 
tion there were 89 visits made to places where the swine were 
not treated for the following reasons: the animals in some in- 
stances had no chance of recovery; in others the trouble was 
found to be some non-contagious infection; again in some of the 
cases proper sanitary conditions, necessary to successful work 
could not be established; and in a few cases the owners did not 
desire to have the animals treated. 

The chart on the opposite page show r s in a general way the 
increase in hog cholera prevention work from the time of its 
inception to the present, and comparative statistics in detail are 
shown in tables which follow 7 it. 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



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PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



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40 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

The preceding table shows that nearly 12,000 more treat- 
ments have been given to swine this year than in 1918 and in 
157 more herds. With this greater number of animals treated, 
either in prevention or cure of hog cholera, it is significant that 
the number of herds found to be already infected at the time of 
treatment is 48 less than last year. This fact indicates the 
trend of the whole situation toward the desired objective of 
control of the disease. 

In explanation of the increasing mortality rate both in in- 
fected herds and in those apparently healthy, it should be said 
that it is due to the prevalence of hemorrhagic septicemia (re- 
ferred to later in this report), which disease has caused the 
deaths of many animals, and which deaths are, in accordance 
with our custom, recorded in the mortality table of animals at 
any time treated in prevention or cure of hog cholera. 

During the past year we have continued the practice, first 
advised in 1918, of treating animals in herds where the infec- 
tion was found to be extensive to a degree which we formerly 
thought rendered treatment inadvisable. If the infection is of 
an acute character, and the animals are not showing symptoms 
of a chronic type of the disease or of a secondary infection, we 
now treat the animals, finding that even under unfavorable con- 
ditions we can generally save enough of them to offset those 
which succumb, and thereby reduce by a considerable amount 
the money loss which the owner would sustain if none of the 
animals were treated because of doubtful chance of success. 

It is satisfactory to note a rapidly increasing number of swine 
owners who realize that the better thing for them to do is to 
have their swine treated before infection appears among them 
and prevent hog cholera rather than attempt to cure it. In the 
one case the outlay (for serum and virus only) is small and not 
to be compared with the probable loss which would sooner or 
later occur in a herd not immunized against hog cholera. 

On the whole, the sanitary conditions under which swine 
are kept are being gradually improved, as the swine owners are 
convinced, either by our strict regulations when service is re- 
quested or by actual experience, that proper sanitary conditions 
of piggeries not only limit the prevalence of contagious disease 
but influence the growth of the animals. While it is nearly 



1920.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 41 

impossible to obtain perfect sanitary conditions in piggeries, 
especially where garbage is fed, much can be done in this direc- 
tion by systematic attention to detail. 

Swine are to-day probably receiving more particular attention 
on the part of experienced and specially trained individuals 
than ever before, with the result that much intensive study is 
being given the subject of their diseases. Some of these either 
formerly did not prevail or were not recognized as specific 
infections. For the past two years, however, some of them have 
prevailed to such an extent in Massachusetts as to demand our 
particular attention. Their prevalence as primary causes of 
swine sickness and their relation to hog cholera are being 
studied in field and laboratory in many parts of the world by 
a large number of workers. In the meantime such practical 
methods of control as have already been proved to be effective 
are being applied. 

Of these diseases, hemorrhagic septicemia and necrotic en- 
teritis are the ones at present recognized as being of the most 
importance in this State. 

The clinical symptoms of hemorrhagic septicemia often so 
closely resemble those of hog cholera as to make a differential 
diagnosis in the field very difficult and sometimes impossible. 
They are frequently determined to be coexistent, and decision 
often cannot be made as to which one is the primary causative 
factor and which the secondary. We consequently in many in- 
stances treat two different infections in the same animal. As 
far as saving the animals goes the results are generally satis- 
factory if the preventive treatments, found to be effective when 
used singly, are applied simultaneously. 

Immunization to hog cholera is always advised, either by 
single or double treatment as the conditions may warrant, 
and treatment of the other infections in addition thereto, as 
may seem advisable. 

During the year 16,180 treatments have been administered to 
swine in prevention or cure of hemorrhagic septicemia, a very 
large increase of this work over that done in 1918. The value 
of the work is without question. In many instances we have 
seen an outbreak of this disease checked in twenty-four hours. 

The probability is that there will be an increased demand for 



42 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

service by our department inspectors in control of swine dis- 
eases the coming year. The work seems to be a popular one 
among those interested in swine production, as shown by their 
constantly increasing requests for this service, and, if the ratio 
of yearly increase in the number of swine is maintained, our 
present force will be taxed to the utmost to perform it in a 
satisfactory manner. 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 

Anthrax. — This disease, existing in many different parts of 
the world and causing an annual loss of many thousands of 
animals, has never prevailed to a serious extent in Massachu- 
setts. Every year, however, a few of our animals lose their 
lives by it, and prompt attention to any outbreak reported is 
necessary to limit its extension. While nearly all species of 
domesticated animals are susceptible to the infection, we find 
that cattle and sheep are the ones most commonly affected. 
The disease is communicable to the human subject, the mode 
of transmission generally being by the handling of carcasses, 
raw hides or wool of animals which have died of the disease. 
The Department is therefore concerned not only with the dan- 
ger of this disease to our live stock but also with the danger of 
its transmission to the human subject. 

All reported cases of an outbreak among animals are immedi- 
ately investigated and subsequent action is taken as deemed 
advisable by the facts disclosed. Positive diagnosis is first 
necessary, and, as the animals generally either are found dead or 
die before arrival of a veterinarian or Department inspector, a 
post-mortem examination would ordinarily be depended upon 
to confirm the suspicions of anthrax. As post-mortem appear- 
ances in this disease are often not sufficiently characteristic to 
justify a positive diagnosis, and as the opening of a carcass 
allows the body fluids to escape and possibly spread the in- 
fection, it is advised that the suspected carcass be not opened, 
but that a specimen of blood be drawn from the cadaver on to 
a piece of glass and then allowed to dry in the air. If this 
specimen is not badly contaminated by careless preparation, 
and is promptly forwarded to a laboratory, there is no diffi- 
culty in determining whether or not anthrax bacilli are present. 



1920.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 43 

A field diagnosis or suspicion of anthrax having been con- 
firmed, preventive measures at once follow. They consist of 
proper disposal of diseased carcasses, disinfection of premises, 
and preventive inoculation of susceptible and exposed animals. 

To prevent infection spreading from a carcass it should be 
burned or deeply buried, covered with quicklime. Anthrax 
organisms or their spores if not destroyed may continue to 
infect soil for a long time; in many instances such infection 
has been found to exist for a number of years. We recom- 
mend that any contaminated ground be burned over and the 
surface area above the buried carcass be fenced and burned 
over yearly. Any contaminated portions of buildings if wooden 
should be torn out and burned, and if concrete should be thor- 
oughly disinfected. 

The remaining animals of the herd should be at once removed 
to other buildings or areas, and the apparently healthy ones 
inoculated in prevention of the disease. Animals already 
affected are sometimes successfully treated, but ordinarily the 
disease runs such a rapid course that death takes place before 
the animal is noticed to be seriously sick. Consequently our 
efforts are generally limited to protection of the animals not 
showing symptoms. Although a certain percentage of deaths 
may reasonably be expected to occur among the inoculated 
animals, we find in actual experience that fatalities are very few. 

Preventive inoculation is supposed to confer immunity for a 
period of at least twelve months. At premises where an out- 
break has occurred and there is reason to fear permanent in- 
fection, it is advised that all suspectible animals be given a 
preventive inoculation each succeeding year for a certain period. 

During the past year the disease has occurred only in cattle, 
9 head on 5 different premises having been found to be affected. 
Of these 9 animals, 4 were in the town of Conway, 2 in the 
town of Lancaster, 1 in Egremont, 1 in Gardner, and 1 in 
Sheffield. The preventive inoculation has been applied to 128 
head of cattle on 8 different premises located in 5 towns. 

Reports of the existence of anthrax on 4 premises in 4 differ- 
ent towns proved upon investigation to be unfounded. In 
another case the animals recovered. On the cases reported 
from 3 of the 4 premises in 3 of the 4 towns laboratory diag- 



44 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



nosis was negative. The specimens submitted from one town 
were too decomposed for a proper examination, and the trouble 
was diagnosed as forage poison. 

Blackleg. — This disease is very prevalent in many different 
parts of the world, and if not controlled causes severe losses 
on account of its high death rate. A disease affecting young 
cattle only and readily prevented by a yearly inoculation just 
before turning to pasture in the spring, its prevalence should 
be limited in this State and the fatalities few, and this no doubt 
would be the case if cattle owners would avail themselves of 
the free service of the Department of Animal Industry in pre- 
vention of the disease. On many farms in different parts of the 
State it has been found by actual experience that if the young 
cattle are not given preventive inoculation a certain number of 
deaths are liable to occur during the pasture season, which fact 
indicates that a permanent or continuous infection of the soil 
exists, constituting a danger to all susceptible animals. 

The security which the Department's prevention work 
affords cattle owners in infected districts is so apparent that a 
steady increase in the number of applications for treatment 
received is noted from year to year. During 1919 we have 
administered preventive inoculation to 1,202 young cattle on 
148 farms located in 47 towns, as tabulated below: — 







Premises. 






Premises. 


Adams, .... 1 


Leverett, ... 1 


Ashburnham, 






4 


Littleton, . 






2 


Ashby, 






10 


Lunenburg, 






1 


Ashfield, 






1 


Montague, . 






1 


Athol, . 






3 


New Bedford, . 






1 


Brimfield, . 






4 


New Marlborough, 






3 


Chester, 






5 


North Adams, . 






3 


Gardner, 






1 


Northampton, . 






6 


Granville, . 






2 


Orange, 






13 


Great Barrington, 






5 


Peru, . 






1 


Greenwich, 






2 


Pittsneld, . 






3 


Hadley, 






1 


Prescott, 






5 


Harvard, 






4 


Princeton, . 






1 


Holyoke, 






3 


Rowe, . 






8 


Huntington, 






1 


Royalston, . 






1 


Lee, 






13 


Rutland, 






1 


Leicester, . 






1 


Saudi sfield, 






4 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



45 





Premises. 




Premises. 


Shelburne, . 


. .. 6 


Wendell, 


. 1 


Southampton, . 


. 2 


Westhampton, . 


1 


South Hadle}^ . 


. 1 


Westminster, 


. . 1 


Sterling, 


. 2 


Williamstown, . 


. 2 


Townsend, . 


. 7 


Winchendon, 


. 1 


Tyringham, 


. 2 


Windsor, 


. 1 


Warwick, . 


. 5 







The records show that 27 deaths from blackleg on 13 differ- 
ent premises have been reported during the year, an increase 
of 10 over the year 1918, and that we have inoculated 11 per 
cent more animals this year than in 1918. 

The increase in this branch of the Department's work is un- 
doubtedly due to the fact that cattle owners are more gen- 
erally informed that their young stock can be successfully pro- 
tected against the disease without in any way interfering with 
their health or growth. 

The same general recommendations regarding disposal of 
infected carcasses by burning or deep burial, followed by dis- 
infection of contaminated areas or buildings, are applicable as 
in cases of anthrax and referred to in the remarks on that dis- 
ease. The immediate removal of stock from the pastures where 
an outbreak occurs is also recommended. 

Actinomycosis. — Very few cases of this disease have been 
reported this year. Our customary action is to apply quaran- 
tine to animals reported as affected, while allowing owners to 
fatten them for slaughter if desired. 

Our attention has been called to 10 cases only during the 
year: 1 each in Hardwick, Kingston, Northneld, Taunton, 
Townsend and Wareham, and 4 in the town of Grafton. Of the 
10 cases reported, 4 were released as not affected; 2 were released 
after treatment, the animals having recovered; and 4 were 
condemned and slaughtered under proper meat inspection. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Cattle. — This is a disease which 
seems to be gradually increasing in prevalence each succeeding 
year. Our records for this year show that 9 more fatal cases 
have been reported than during 1918. Thirty-one head of cattle 
have died from the disease, these fatal cases occurring on 14 
different premises in 10 different towns, namely, Buckland, 



46 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Deerfield, Fitchburg, Groton, Lancaster, Rowe, Southwick, 
Wellesley, Wendell and Worcester. 

Its prevalence among swine is referred to on page 41 in con- 
nection with our work in prevention of hog cholera, for the 
reason that our field men engaged in inoculating swine against 
cholera have their attention directed to cases of hemorrhagic 
septicemia among them, and the record of both diseases is made 
at one time. 

The symptoms of hemorrhagic septicemia affecting cattle 
very closely resemble those of anthrax in many instances, and a 
differential diagnosis between these two diseases has frequently 
been possible only as a result of a laboratory examination of 
specimens from the carcasses of the animals. 

Preventive treatment has recently been developed to such a 
degree that it has been found possible to protect the remaining 
healthy animals, in herds where cases of the disease have 
occurred, by inoculation of biological preparations manufac- 
tured for the purpose. We have applied this preventive in- 
oculation to 52 head of cattle during the past year. 

It is generally found that removal of the herd from the 
pasture or premises where a fatal case has developed results in 
preventing further extension of the disease. This experience 
indicates that one source of the infection is located in the soil, 
and that contagion does not spread rapidly from animal to 
animal. The experience of many other States, where a wide- 
spread prevalence of this disease has been caused by shipments 
of cattle to the farms from public stockyards, has not occurred 
in Massachusetts. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that 
much of the restocking of herds in Massachusetts is by the 
addition of cattle shipped directly from farms of near-by 
States and not often through any public stockyard. At the 
principal Massachusetts stockyards, located at Brighton, this 
disease has not appeared, and it therefore seems that Massa- 
chusetts herds are at present safe from the extension of the 
disease through the channels by which it has been spread in 
many other sections of the country. 

Mange. — This very troublesome disease seems to have been 
much less prevalent than usual in Massachusetts during the 
past year. Our records show a smaller number of animals to 
have been affected with it than during the years 1916, 1917 or 



1920.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 47 

1918. In 1916, 85 head of cattle were reported as affected; 
during the past year 76 head have been so reported. Thirteen 
horses on 9 premises have also been reported as showing posi- 
tive symptoms of this disease. The premises on which cattle 
have been reported are located in Concord, Dartmouth, Graf- 
ton, Lincoln, Merrimac, Milton, Needham, Northampton and 
Winchester. The places from which affected horses have been 
reported are Abington, Concord, Framingham, Medford, New- 
ton, Revere, Somerville, Taunton, Watertown and Worcester. 

Successful treatment of this disease is possible if the owner 
or attendant will faithfully carry out the local application of 
proper medicinal remedies. The treatment recommended is not 
expensive, but it is very inconvenient in application. It is our 
custom to quarantine affected animals if they are kept under 
conditions which favor the spread of the disease, and particu- 
larly where owners and attendants are not likely to properly 
attend to them. Fortunately, however, most of the owners of 
cattle affected with mange realize that its cure means an in- 
creased amount of animal products, and they therefore faith- 
fully follow directions for treatment. Successful treatment of 
the disease in horses also means increased capacity of the 
animals for work and less feed necessary to keep them in proper 
condition. 

Foot-and-mouth Disease. — This disease has not appeared in 
Massachusetts during the past three years, although we have 
received reports of its existence in the towns of Ashland and 
Lenox. Prompt investigation of these reports proved them to 
be unfounded. As it has lately prevailed to an alarming extent 
in many foreign countries, we must consider the possibility of 
its appearance in this country at any time. We are assured 
that the Federal authorities are carefully watching the situa- 
tion, and have formulated plans for the prompt inauguration of 
forceful control work if the emergency occurs. Locally, all 
Department veterinarians, inspectors of animals and private 
veterinarians are requested to be constantly on watch and to 
promptly report any suspicious cases, in order that measures 
may be immediately taken to prevent its spread. 

Diseases of Sheep. — On one of the smaller islands off the 
southern coast of the State owned by a private individual, a 
flock of about 750 sheep are maintained. In this flock the 



48 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

disease known as " sheep scab" or "scabies" appeared im- 
mediately after the animals were sheared in June, and when 
reported to this office about 125 animals were affected. On a 
positive diagnosis being established by consultation of the 
veterinarian in attendance with a Department agent, arrange- 
ments for "dipping" the animals were soon made and carried 
into execution under supervision of the attending veterinarian. 
All the animals were twice subjected to the lime and sulphur 
dip, in accordance with a plan found effective by this De- 
partment in its experience with control of an outbreak of the 
disease on Nantucket Island in 1915. At the annual round-up 
of the animals the coming spring further attention to control 
measures will be given and further dipping be made if the same 
is found necessary. It seems probable that the disease was 
brought to this flock by the shearers, as its first appearance 
occurred soon after their work there and it had not existed in 
the flock previously. 

A few cases of nodular disease have been reported from the 
towns of Freetown, Salisbury and Uxbridge. This disease is 
due to an intestinal parasite which causes more or less loss by 
death of young lambs, and also by retarding the proper de- 
velopment of others which are harboring it. A case of forage 
poisoning occurred in the town of Orange. 

Infectious Abortion. >■ — The prevalence of infectious abortion 
in Massachusetts herds of cattle during the past year has been 
of the same great concern as has been referred to in previous 
reports. Its ravages are well known to every one engaged in 
the production of milk or in the breeding of thoroughbred 
cattle, and the losses occasioned by its attendant results are 
estimated to be second only to those caused by bovine tuber- 
culosis. As much of the loss caused by this disease is occasioned 
by resulting sterility, either permanent or temporary, which 
condition should properly be the subject of investigation by 
the herd owner's private veterinarian, followed by such treat- 
ment as he may recommend, it would seem that the function 
of this Department in connection with the situation should be 
limited to the giving of advice as to the general management of 
infected herds, and as to the carrying out of sanitary measures 
recognized as essential to any progress in controlling the preva- 
lence of the infection. In other words, it does not seem feasible 



1920.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 49 

for this Department at this time to enter the field of specific 
treatment of herds in which the infection prevails, or of in- 
dividual animals suffering from any one of the many different 
pathological conditions concurrent with the infection. Such 
work can probably be attended to more successfully by the 
private veterinarian who has fitted himself for this branch of 
expert veterinary practice. 

Equine Tuberculosis. — Tuberculosis is so rarely found in the 
equine species that special mention should be made of a horse 
killed by the Department in the town of Harvard in April of 
this year, post-mortem examination of which revealed extensive 
lesions of this disease, involving the major portion of the spleen 
and both lungs. This horse came from the West nine years 
ago, had been in the same town practically ever since his arrival, 
and had been used as a draft horse on two different farm prem- 
ises. He had apparently been in good health until last winter 
when he began to lose flesh rapidly, became muscularly weak, 
and showed a rapid respiration accompanied by a sonorous 
cough. No history could be obtained of other cases of tuber- 
culosis having existed on either of the farms where he had spent 
the major portion of his life. Positive diagnosis of the case was 
made as a result of laboratory examination. 



The Department has frequently been called upon to make 
examination of animals reported to be affected with a conta- 
gious disease, and it has been found that the disease with which 
the animals may have been affected was not of a contagious 
nature. Among the diseases found in such instances may be 
mentioned acute indigestion, cancer, foot rot, forage poisoning, 
lead poisoning, keratitis, non-nutrition, pericarditis, pneumonia 
and traumatic septicemia. As we are anxious, however, to at all 
times be thoroughly informed as to the prevalence of contagious 
disease among our domestic animals, it is our custom to promptly 
investigate all such reports from whomsoever received. 

In September it was reported that an unusual number of 
deaths had occurred among horses pastured in the towns of 
Hingham, Norwell, Hull and Scituate, in an area about 10 miles 
square. In all, 10 horses had died or were killed, all exhibiting 



50 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



a similar train of symptoms, namely, cerebral congestion, 
staggering gait, loss of co-ordination, partial paralysis of the 
hind limbs finally becoming complete, inability to rise, followed 
by death in thirty-six to forty-eight hours in some of the cases. 
Specimens were procured from the next case reported, which 
proved to be the last one, and submitted to laboratory exami- 
nation. This was, however, unsatisfactory, no specific organ- 
ism being found. Recorded symptoms all pointed to some 
form of forage poisoning as responsible for the fatalities, but the 
specific forage could not be identified. A prominent veterinary 
bacteriologist suggested the Bacillus botulinus as the possible 
causative organism, the history of the cases being similar to 
that of a number of cases in which the Bacillus botulinus was 
found to be present. Laboratory examination, however, did not 
substantiate this suggestion. The cases were all reported by 
one veterinarian and no other cases of a similar character were 
reported from other sections. 



Laboratory Examinations. 

We constantly request the submission to this Department of 
specimens for laboratory examination where contagious disease 
is suspected, or where for any reason positive diagnosis is neces- 
sary and cannot be made by other methods. In addition to the 
brains of 88 animals submitted because suspected of rabies and 
125 samples of blood taken from animals in our work of glanders 
control, there have been 78 other specimens submitted to the 
laboratory for examination and diagnosis. These may be listed 
as follows under the name of the disease suspected, together 
with the finding of the laboratory: — 



r . .. .. - — - — - 


Positive. 


Negative. 


Actinomycosis, 

Anthrax, 

Blackleg, 

Botulism, 

Glanders, 

Hemorrhagic septicemia, 

Infectious abortion, 

Malignant lymphoma, . 

Nodular disease, . 

Tuberculosis, 
















5 
3 

5 
4 
1 
1 
11 


1 
6 
3 
2 
3 
7 

16 


• 
















30 


38 



No diagnosis, 



L0 



1920.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 51 

The importance and absolute necessity of laboratory exam- 
inations in connection with the work of this Department are 
apparent. These examinations are specially important in con- 
nection with diseases which are communicable to the human 
subject, notably rabies, positive diagnosis of which by clinical 
symptoms of the suspected animal is often impossible for the 
reason that in many instances the infected animal is killed be- 
fore positive clinical symptoms have appeared. In case" persons 
have been bitten by such an animal a diagnosis by laboratory 
examination becomes necessary for the purpose of determining 
whether or not preventive inoculation should be administered 
to the persons bitten. Failure to make diagnosis in such in- 
stances might result in the loss of human life. Laboratory in- 
vestigation in connection with our control work in other con- 
tagious diseases is also very necessary to its success and really 
indispensable at the present day. The laboratory of the State 
Department of Health has efficiently performed this entire serv- 
ice for us during the year. 

Annual Inspection of Fakm Animals and Premises. 

In accordance with sections 14 to 24 of chapter 90 of the Re- 
vised Laws and pursuant to an order of the Commissioner 
issued Jan. 17, 1919, to inspectors of animals of all cities and 
towns of the Commonwealth, an inspection of all cattle, sheep 
and swine and the premises on which they are kept was duly 
made, and every inspector submitted to this office a report of 
his work. The inspector also made a duplicate report of his 
visit to each individual premises, leaving it with the owner. 

The complete reports sent to the office of the Department are 
carefully gone over and the information contained in them is 
tabulated for reference. They furnish a fairly correct and 
comprehensive survey of animal health in general and of the 
sanitary conditions under which Massachusetts live stock is 
kept, also valuable data for yearly comparison and for con- 
sideration when formulating general policies for disease control 
work. By reference to them may be gathered information as to 
existing conditions at any one point where unusual prevalence 
of disease may appear. 

These reports also furnish the only correct "census" of farm 
animals published, and in that connection are of considerable 



52 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



interest and value not only to this Department but to other 
State departments, and to associations and individuals inter- 
ested in the breeding and raising of live stock, or engaged in 
any of the many branches of business closely related thereto. 

In instances where unsatisfactory conditions of animals or 
premises are found by the local inspectors, the latter make 
recommendations for improvements and later visit the premises 
to ascertain if such have been carried out. It frequently hap- 
pens that owners entirely fail to make the changes recom- 
mended, and in those instances the district veterinarians of 
the Department are directed to visit the premises in their re- 
spective districts and by every means possible to induce owners 
to bring sanitary conditions up to a reasonable state of per- 
fection. In pursuance of this plan district veterinarians made 
2,097 visits during the year, and the result in a majority of 
instances was full or partial correction of the unsatisfactory 
conditions noted by local inspectors. 

A gross tabulation of annual reports of inspectors follows: — 



Total number of herds of cattle inspected, .... 
Number of herds containing not over 5 dairy cows, 

Number of neat cattle inspected, 

Number of dairy cows inspected, 

Number of herds found clean and in good condition, . 

Number of stables inspected, 

Number of stables properly drained, 

Number of stables well ventilated, 

Number of stables sufficiently lighted, 

Number of stables found clean, . . . " . 

Number of stables in which improvements were recommended, 

Number of herds of swine inspected, 

Number of swine inspected, 

Number of herds of swine garbage-fed, 

Number of swine garbage-fed, 

Number of sheep inspected, 

Number of goats inspected, 



30,155 

22,135 

230,191 

150,593 

29,048 

31,123 

30,780 

30,597 

30,302 

29,806 

976 

17,076 

108,108 

3,547 

55,652 

17,906 

1,408 



The annual inspection from which the above tabulation was 
made took place during the spring months of 1919, and at that 
time there was found a decrease in the total number of cattle 
in the State of 1,216 since the inspection made the previous 
year, a decrease of about one-half of 1 per cent. The present 
total is found to be only slightly below the average total for 



1920.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 53 

the years 1901 to 1919. The number of dairy cows decreased 
during the year by 1,366, and the present total shows their 
number to be about 9,400 below the average number for the 
years mentioned. 

The above statistics referring to total number of swine are 
not reliable as showing the actual conditions of the swine- 
raising industry, for the reason that the numbers increase or 
decrease rapidly on individual premises according as new litters 
are farrowed or mature animals are shipped to market. The 
record of the inspector may be made just before or just after 
one of these happenings and does not therefore reliably indicate 
the condition as to numbers. The statistics referring to number 
of herds are, however, a proper basis for deductions. These 
show that 4,193 more people engaged in swine raising during 
the year ending in the spring of 1919 than had so engaged the 
previous year. 

The inspectors' records of the number of sheep found on 
farms show an increase during the year from 16,570 at the 1918 
inspection to 17,906 in 1919. On account of the recent increas- 
ing interest in sheep raising the total number owned in the 
State will undoubtedly show an increase at the next inspection. 

In connection with the above reference to reports of the in- 
spectors of animals of the various towns and cities, attention 
may very properly be called to the value of the services of in- 
spectors in other instances. By law they are obliged to carry 
out any orders given them by the Commissioner of Animal 
Industry, and it frequently becomes necessary to call upon them 
for active service in connection with outbreaks of contagious 
disease or with the arrival of animals shipped interstate. In 
this way they are a necessary part of our organization, and 
according as they are alert, conscientious and faithful they 
render valuable aid and assistance in the execution of our work 
as a whole. 

Meetings of inspectors of animals were called at different 
points in the State as follows: Greenfield, October 28; Pitts- 
field, October 29; Springfield, October 30; Boston, November 
5; Worcester, November 6; Middleborough, November 7. 

At these meetings there was a total attendance of 188. Much 
benefit was derived from the discussions of matters of especial 
interest to the local inspectors, such as general live-stock con- 



54 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



ditions, the prevalence of rabies in dogs, of tuberculosis in 
cattle, and regarding the duties of inspectors in unusual in- 
stances of various kinds. A question box was instituted at each 
meeting as a new feature, and this brought forth much addi- 
tional discussion. Charts showing the Department's work in 
its various branches for a period of years were shown and ex- 
plained in detail by Department officials. 



Reports of Rendering Companies. 

Section 111 of chapter 75 of the Revised Laws, as amended 
by chapter 243 of the Acts of 1907, requires rendering com- 
panies to report to this Department every animal received by 
them which is found to be infected with a contagious disease, 
and the information thus furnished is of value in bringing to 
the attention of the Department occasional cases of these dis- 
eases which otherwise would not be known. A table of reports 
of rendering companies follows: — 







i„ 


HI 


h-i 1 


=+-C -U • 






o 


O 





O „"S 




to 


to 


to 


to &_: 


O O 
tO ^H^ 






o 


CL> 


® a 


« s 




O 
a 


8 


to 

03 


H& 


to § 

c3 a 




o> 


O 


Q_2 


08s 


0.2 2 




Ph 




*CQ 


a 


"<2 ^ 


Rendering Companies. 


o 


°i2* 


■s| 


1M 0> 

O to ^ 


°3^ 






. *> 


, 


, O >> 


. ^ 






(H -T-J 


b m 


&H.— 1 ^? 


5s S 




o 


0J X 


<D 


D^« 


as aj.y 




£l 


x> p 


r£J2 


-5 rf ^ 


*2^ £ 




s 


s| 


£ r * 


gJ2 


a 3 g 




d 


20 


3H 


30> 


3r-i a 




£ 


£ 


% 


B 


£ 


Ayer Rendering Company, 


3 


- 


3 


- 


- 


Edwin G. Baker & Son, Providence, R. I., 


8 


- 


9 


- 


- 


L. B. Darling Fertilizer Company, Paw- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


tucket, R. I. 












Saul Donais, Southbridge, 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


William S. Higgins, Wilmington, 


4 


- 


4 


- 


- 


Home Soap Company, Millbury, 


7 


1 


14 


- 


- 


Lowell Rendering Company, 


7 


- 


10 


- 


- 


Muller Brothers, Cambridge, 


3 


4 


- 


- 


- 


New England Rendering Company, 


6 


6 


2 


- 


- 


Brighton. 












Parmenter & Polsey Fertilizer Company, 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Peabody. 












N. Roy & Son, South Attleborough, . 


4 


1 


3 


— 


1 


N. Roy, Jr., Fall River 


8 


- 


11 


- 


- 


Springfield Rendering Company, 


1 


1 


■ - 


- 


- 


N. Ward Company, Boston, 


5 


9 


- 


1 


- 


Worcester Rendering Company, 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Totals, ...... 


60 


25 


57 


l 


1 



Note. — All the above cases are included in statistics occurring elsewhere in this report. 



1920.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



55 



Receipts of Live Stock at the Stockyards in Boston and 
Vicinity foe Twelve Months ending Nov. 30, 1919. 

For several years, at the request of the United States De- 
partment of Commerce and Labor, a report of the receipts of 
all live stock at Boston has been sent to Washington each 
month. The following table shows the receipts by months for 
the past year: — 



For Month of — 


Cattle. 


Calves. 


Sheep. 


Swine. 


Horses. 


December, 


21,219 


19,909 


18,899 


205,330 


985 


January, 










13,255 


14,535 


19,610 


197,718 


984 


February, . 










9,274 


12,502 


13,039 


196,860 


1,236 


March, 










10,390 


19,077 


11,510 


121,476 


1,955 


April, . 










11,664 


35,780 


14,966 


91,926 


2,358 


May, . 










8,512 


27,887 


13,530 


93,399 


1,865 


June, , 










7,320 


18,454 


- 8,902 


133,801 


1,525 


July, . 










9,727 


17,592 


23,304 


133,609 


1,125 


August, 










7,948 


16,734 


23,714 


53,700 


1,125 


September, 










9,760 


15,519 


33,358 


55,624 


1,126 


October, 










8,504 


11,740 


28,735 


33,142 


1,226 


November, . 










7,943 


7,306 


5,016 


15,216 


823 


Totals, 


125,516 


217,035 


214,583 


1,331,801 


16,333 


. . 



. Financial Statement. 

Appropriation for the salary of the Commissioner, chapter 153, Special 

Acts of 1919, $3,500 00 

Expended during the year for the salary of the Commissioner, . . 3,500 00 
Appropriation for personal services of clerks and stenographers, chapter 

153, Special Acts of 1919, $8,000 00 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 
Personal services of clerks and stenographers, . . . $7,045 25 
Extra clerical and stenographic service 167 13 

Total expenditure, $7,212 38 

Unexpended balance, 787 62 

$8,000 00 

Appropriation for services other than personal, including printing the 
annual report, traveling expenses of the Commissioner, and office 
supplies and equipment, chapter 153, Special Acts of 1919 , . . $4,400 00 



56 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Expended during the year for the following purposes: — 

Books and maps, 

Express and messenger service, 

Postage, 

Printing report, 

Other printing, . 

Telephone and telegrams, 

Stationery and office supplies, 

Typewriter, 

Expenses of the Commissioner, 

Sundries, . 

Total expenditure, . 

Unexpended balance, 



Appropriation for personal services of veterinarians and 

agents engaged in the work of extermination of 

contagious diseases among domestic animals, 

chapter 153, Special Acts of 1919, $47,000 00 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Services of regular agents, $33,874 81 

Services of per diem agents, 9,756 00 

Labor hired, 326 00 

Total expenditure, $43,956 81 

Unexpended balance, 3,043 19 



$72 35 


240 


56 


730 


72 


145 


53 


1,126 


73 


643 


52 


724 


04 


96 


75 


515 


45 


3 


45 


$4,299 


10 


100 


90 




— $4,400 00 



$47,000 00 



Appropriation for the traveling expenses of veterina- 
rians and agents, chapter 153, Special Acts of 1919, . . . $22,500 00 
Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 
Traveling expenses of regular agents, .... $15,634 53 

Traveling expenses of per diem agents, .... 5,381 29 



Total expenditure, $21,015 82 

Unexpended balance, ' . 1,484 18 



$22,500 00 



Appropriation for reimbursement of owners of cattle and 
horses killed, travel, when allowed, of inspectors 
of animals, incidental expenses of killing and 
burial, quarantine and emergency services, and 
for laboratory and veterinary supplies and equip- 
ment, chapter 153, Special Acts of 1919, . . . $55,000 00 

Brought forward from 1918 appropriation, ... 29 24 

Total amount appropriated, $55,029 24 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 
932 head of cattle condemned and killed on account of 
tuberculosis in 1914, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, paid 

for in 1919 $39,135 82 

31 horses condemned and killed on account of glanders 

and farcy in 1918 and 1919, paid for in 1919, . . 1,685 00 

Supplies for veterinary inspectors, 1,058 16 

Laundry, , 523 58 



1920.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 57 

Antiseptics, biologies and disinfectants, .... $2,257 15 

Thermometers, needles, syringes, etc., .... 1,393 50 

Ear-tags, punches, chains, etc., 2,387 11 

Expenses of killing and burial, 24 50 

Expenses of travel allowed inspectors of animals, . . 594 63 

Quarantine expenses, ' . 162 18 

Rent of quarantine office, . . . . . . 110 00 

Sundries, 141 10 

Total expenditure, $49,472 73 

Unexpended balance, .... -r~~ . . . 5,556 51 

$55,029 24 

The average price paid for condemned cattle for the year 
was $37.83. 

There has been received during the year from the sale of 
hides and carcasses of condemned animals $736.20, and for the 
testing of cattle for non-resident owners $2,271.75, a total 
amount of $3,007.95. 

Claims for 79 head of cattle condemned and killed as tuber- 
culous during the year remain unsettled, to be paid for on 
proof of claims, the appraised value of which amounts to $2,874. 

Claims for 2 horses condemned and killed during the year 
because deemed to be affected with glanders remain unsettled, 
to be paid for on proof of claims, the allowance for which under 
the law will amount to $100. 

Respectfully submitted, 

LESTER H. HOWARD, 

Commissioner.